Select material Procure material Store material

CPCCBC4006A - Building Materials

Select, procure and store construction materials for low rise projects

The unit refers to low rise building construction. What constitute a low rise building?
The BCA classification is used for the meaning of 'low rise buildings' and that is:

  • Class 1 and 10 (Volume 2 - Housing Provision)

  • Classes 2 to9 (Volume 1)with a gross floor area not exceeding 2000 metre square and not including Type A or Type B construction.

Issues to be considered to select, procure and store construction materials

There are some common publications that are applicable for most Units of Competencies. The CPSISC Delivery and Assessment Guide Competency area 1 deals with this issue, which is an integral part of this unit.

    1. Material selection

Generally building construction must be in compliance with the BCA and Australian Standards. Below are some issues that need to be considered when selecting materials.

a)     Australian Building Codes

TheAustralian Building Codes Board maintains and updates the Building Code of Australia (BCA) Website
You can order the code as a CD, hard copy or subscribe to online access

The goals of the BCA are to enable the achievement and maintenance of acceptable standards of structural sufficiency, safety (including safety from fire), health and amenity for the benefit of the community.

The BCA contains technical provisions for the design and construction of buildings and other structures, covering such matters as structure, fire resistance, access and egress, services and equipment, and certain aspects of health and amenity.

The Australian Building Codes is a performance-based regulation.

Performance based regulations do not dictate how to achieve required results. Any acceptable decision made by builders within the range of the BCA can be approved by building surveyors. The BCA provides two standard solutions that may be used; these are:

  • 2)  ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS (provides options to the DTS provisions)

Standard solutions are called Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions and these are widely used in residential construction.

The ABCB and Standards Australia work closely together to enhance consistency between the Building Code of Australia and the Australian Standards which it references (see Volume 2 Part 1.4 &Volume 1 Specification A1.3)

b)     Australian Standards

Standards Australia is recognised by the Government as Australia’s peak Standards body. It coordinates standardisation activities, develops internationally aligned Australian standards of public benefit and national interest and facilitates the accreditation of other Standards development organisations. Through the Australian International Design Awards it promotes excellence in design and innovation.

SAI-Global has the exclusive license over the distribution and sale of Australia Standards.

Domestic Building Standards

A CD has been compiled containing 31 of the most popular Domestic Building Standards and Handbooks covering plumbing, concrete, masonry, glass and much more.

The Domestic Building Standards CD includes:

AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 Structural design actions—General principles
AS/NZS 1170.1:2002 Structural design actions—Permanent, imposed and other actions
AS 1288-2006 Glass in buildings-Selection and installation
AS 1288 Supp 1-2006  Glass in buildings-Selection and installation (Supplement to AS 1288-2006)
AS/NZS 1547:2000 On-site domestic wastewater management
AS 1684.1-1999 Residential timber-framed construction - Design criteria
AS 1684.2-2006 Residential timber-framed construction - Non-cyclonic areas
AS 1684.3-2006 Residential timber-framed construction - Cyclonic areas
AS 1684.4-2006 Residential timber-framed construction - Simplified - Non-cyclonic areas
AS 2047-1999 Windows in buildings - Selection and installation
AS 2050-2002 Installation of roof tiles
AS/NZS 2311:2000 Guide to the painting of buildings
AS 2870-1996  Residential slabs and footings - Construction
AS/NZS 3018:2001 Electrical installations - Domestic installations

AS/NZS 3500.5:2000 National Plumbing and Drainage - Domestic installations
AS 3600-2001 Concrete structures
AS 3623-1993  Domestic metal framing
AS 3660.1-2000 Termite management - New building work
AS 3660.2-2000 Termite management - In and around existing buildings and structures - Guidelines
AS 3660.3-2000 Termite management - Assessment criteria for termite management systems
AS 3700-2001 Masonry structures
AS 3740-2004 Waterproofing of wet areas within residential buildings
AS 3958.1-2007 Ceramic tiles - Guide to the installation of ceramic tiles
AS 3959-1999 Construction of buildings in bushfire-prone areas
AS 4055-2006 Wind loads for housing
AS 4349.1-2007 Inspection of buildings - Pre-purchase inspections - Residential buildings
AS 4440-2004 Installation of nailplated timber roof trusses
HB 50-2004 Glossary of building terms
HB 161-2005 Guide to Plastering
HB 125-2007 The glass and glazing handbook (including guide to AS 1288, Glass in buildings - Selection and installation)
HB 230-2006 Rainwater tank design and installation handbook

Please make sure you use the latest edition of the standards.

c)     WorkSafe

Working in the building and construction industry is a risky business. Contractors, subcontractors and their workers face risks from hazards that must be managed to prevent deaths, injuries and illness.

Employers have obligations under the law to deal with relevant legislation and codes of practice.

To understand the obligations and safety requirements one must be familiar with the:

  • Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984), which imposes obligations on people at workplaces to ensure workplace safety and health.
  • Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 describes what must be done to prevent or control certain hazards which cause injury, illness or death.
  • Codes of practice, which are designed to give practical advice about ways to manage exposure to risks common to industry.

It is a requirement of an employer to ensure that every employee has received adequate training. White Cards are accepted by all jurisdictions in all states and/or Territories, as evidence that induction training has been completed in accordance with the National Code CPCCOHS1001A.

d)     Organisational quality standards

The company should have a Building Quality Standards Policy in place to set the minimum quality criteria for all construction projects. A documented plan for the construction work should assist the principal contractor to manage relevant workplace issues and health and safety obligations.

Most companies have some quality standards adopted including the selection of material and their correct installation.

An alternative material or building practice should only be considered if it is better and more cost-effective. Selection requirements for materials should include availability, transportation, handling, testing, waste reduction, reuse/recycling, renewable non-renewable, short and long-term degradation, environmental impact, embedded energy, fire resistance rating, compatibility, acoustic properties, life-cycle cost, etc.

e)     Selection of appropriate building material

The selection of building materials greatly impacts the sustainability of a project. By choosing building materials wisely, such as considering the complete life cycle of the materials, a builder can reduce the impact of the project on the environment. Careful material selection can minimise the depletion of resources, including raw materials, such as wood and metals, as well as energy and water used in the manufacturing process. It also can allow for efficient reuse or recycling of materials and building components if a building or facility is to be deconstructed or demolished. Finally, building materials choices may alleviate environmental impacts created by the manufacturing process.

The selection of building materials should have due regard to the embodied energy of the product and its environmental impact.

The following questions may be used to determine the selection of building material:

  • What material property (eg strength, durability, density, combustibility etc),is required for construction type
  • Does the material and construction technique provide safety against natural hazards (eg fire, heavy rain, cyclones, earthquake etc)?
  • Is the material produced locally, or is it partially or entirely imported?
  • What are the costs of the material (can it be produced at lower costs on the building site)?
  • Where has it been produced (transport costs!)?
  • Is the material made with recycled content?
  • Is the material suitable for the climate condition
  • Has the material a lifespan equivalent to the projected life of the building.
  • Encourage development of new, efficient, low impact materials and applications by creating demand.
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    2. Procurement of material

    Someone who is involved in materials procurement is responsible for buying goods (eg materials needed for the building project).Any business organisation that uses, or sells products will generally have a materials procurement department.

    Often a materials procurement manager will be in charge of this division, although several different individuals may be needed. This person will meet with potential providers of goods and factor in any number of things when making a decision to buy. The goods a company purchases and then resells to consumers can make all the difference between success and failure in the marketplace.

    Another important factor in material procurement proceedings is the negotiation of a price.

    As a manager or executive in your company’s purchasing or materials management organisation, you face many challenges. Overall, you are being asked to find ways to cut costs, shorten cycle times, improve supply chain partner relationships and generally do more with less.

    Procurement Software

    There are numerous software packages available. A few are mentioned below:

    Aestiva Procurement is a software solution for streamlining procurement processes…….

    PROACTIS spend control and eProcurement solutions streamline the purchase-to-pay process…..,

    Coupa combines the best e-procurement and expense management capabilities in a single solution that is easier to use, faster to configure and deploy, and more cost-effective than anything available today.

    Additional considerations when procuring material

    a)       Environmental issues

    Nowadays it's an important factor to consider the implication of the material that it has on the environment. The issues surrounding climate change have been highlighted with the introduction by the Federal Government through the Building Code of Australia of increased energy efficiency requirements for all buildings Sustainability (doing more for less) is now the way of the future.

    A business that now embraces a sustainable approach is the business that won’t be left behind.

    b)     Life Cycle Assessment (LCA*)

    To understand and mitigate the environmental impact of buildings and occupying houses, many companies are already using a LCA methodology to more accurately compare the advantages and disadvantages of different building materials.

    * LCA is a method that can be used to quantify and assess the environmental impact of any product. LCA provides a way to quantify    the relative importance of building use compared to the rest of the building’s life cycle.

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          3. Storage of material

    Handling and storing materials involves diverse operations such as hoisting tons of steel with a crane, driving a truck loaded with concrete blocks, manually carrying bags and material, and stacking drums, barrels, kegs, lumber, or loose bricks.

    The efficient handling and storing of materials is vital to industry. Workers frequently name the weight and bulkiness of objects being lifted as major contributing factors to their injuries and back injuries accounted for more than 20 percent of all occupational illnesses. General safety principles can help reduce workplace accidents and injuries (see Code of Practice Manual Handling).

    One of the best things you can do with your construction site is store materials properly. Although it would be nice to get materials, and use them same day, during the construction process, you are inevitably going to have to store some of your materials. You are going to want to ensure that they are safe from theft, weather, etc. Otherwise, the cost of building is going to greatly increase.

    So what can you do to store materials, and cut replacement costs?

    Coordinate the delivery of materials when it will be used. If that can be done successfully the materials won't be on site for very long before it's used. In this case there is a smaller chance of "being misplaced" or walking away, and a lesser chance of being damaged. Coordinating such deliveries is especially important because the storage of materials for very long will increase the costs.

    Materials not delivered on schedule must be stored at a safe place. This can be a lockable storage container. The container should be positioned at an appropriate location on site. Material stored in a shed is harder to steal, and protected it until it is going to be used.

    When it comes to storing materials, it is important to have them near where they will be used. Store things such as bricks and blocks on pallets placed nearby the place of use.

    The following points should be considered:

    Material Delivery Practices

    • Keep an accurate, up-to-date inventory of material delivered and stored onsite.
    • Employees and subcontractors should be trained on the proper material delivery and storage practices.
    • Arrange for employees trained in emergency spill cleanup procedures to be present when dangerous materials or liquid chemicals are unloaded.

    Storage on site

    • Site supervisors must provide adequate facilities for storage and handling of building materials.
    • Construction site areas should be designated for material delivery and storage.
    • Temporary storage area should be located away from vehicular traffic.
    • Material delivery and storage areas should be located near the construction entrances,
    • Where it is necessary, place erodible material on a hard surface.
    • Don't place the material near a rubbish skip.
    • Materials must not be stored/retained on a road reserve without first obtaining permission from the Council).
    • Material placed on the road reserve must not block traffic or cause a safety problem.
    • Storage of reactive, ignitable, or flammable liquids must comply with the fire codes.
    • Hazardous materials storage onsite should be minimized.
    • Prevent, reduce, or eliminate the discharge of pollutants from material delivery and storage to the stormwater system,
    • During the rainy season, consider storing materials in a covered area.
    • Don't store chemicals, drums, or bagged materials directly on the ground.
    • Contain and clean up any spill immediately.
    • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be supplied for all hazardous materials stored,

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